The Foundations of Wisdom - The Teachings of Zen Buddhism
Foundations of Wisdom
The teachings of Zen Buddhism_
Written by Mark W. Vetanen
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- As the lotus sinks its long root into the murky mud, White pure blossom springs forth.
"When people jump directly into the study of Zen, they find often find it to be baffling and confusing, but when the basic Buddhist teachings are understood, much of the mystery disappears!" -From Zen Root, by Kyogen Carlson, Abbot of the Dharma Rain Zen Center, Portland Oregon.
All too often we jump right into the deep end of what we want. We tell each other of the benefits, the pleasures and the rewards of religious practice and faith. Quickly, we rush into what we perceive practice and enlightenment to be. Diving head first into the cold icy waters of our own desires we notice ourselves in an ocean of ignorance that we are drowning in!
Zen training lays its foundations on this very world we call everyday life. Zen teachers of present and past have skillfully help the students notice how they view this world, and the life they are living. This is like a mother teaching the child how to gain its first steps on their own. The potential for walking is already there and the mother just encourages that potential to arise. Once the student has gained the first steps, it is like a water spring that suddenly rises from the ground, for what that stream encounters and where it meanders, is the Dharma life of the Awakened one.
Zen Buddhist training often uses' an analogy, a container such as a form or story, to convey the teachings and meanings of Buddhist training. Here we shall use the analogy of building a ship. We will build our ship, the vessel that we use to seek out our sufferings, out of the understanding and actualization of the teachings of the Buddhist religious writings called Sutras, and the writings of Zen teachers of the past. Now the Zen Purest will says that there is no vessel, no water to sail in and no place to go, in meaning that all is just mind mentalization. That is true to a certain point of view, but for now lets engage in building a vessel, knowing that this vessel is only our mind mentialization engaging in dualistic thought and delusion. To engage in metaphor is just a vessel for our perceptions to be placed in, to learn about our held perceptions, about the nature of self and the meaning of the Buddhist words.
To start building our ship we must first build the keel, which is like a backbone. The entire frame work of the ship is resting on the strength and the shape of the keel. If the keel is rotten or built of unsound material, the ship will crumble in the first storm encountered.
The materials that we need to gather to make a Strong backbone for our ship are the Three states of being:
Anicca, Anatta and Dukkha are old Indian Pali words that Buddhist sutras have used throughout the ages. The meaning of each word cannot just be summed up in a paragraph or two. These words embody an experience just as the world love embodies an experience of mind and body.
Each moment of being is like a bubble rising to the surface of a flowing river, to only momentary ride on the surface then disappear, releasing the elements combined. Anicca is a term that shows the elements of the discriminating mind to the mind that perceives each part of the world in separateness. That is the same as discriminating between states of being, qualities of being and duration of being. The discrimination that Buddhist speak of is the mental activity of labeling a perceived arising, placing value on them in relationship to the self.
Temporary, transitory and illusionary are all words used to describe Anicca. For even this Vessel that we are building is subjected to the Law of Anicca. For the moment is appearing as if it is coming and will later appear that it is disappearing. Do not be fooled in thinking that Anicca cannot touch us. The proof is in our ever changing bodies. Through this body we have perceived the changes of our world and have seen our effects' in our world. Like our vessel that we are building, it will go through many changes and may seem at time non-vessel like. As we build our vessel, we begin to understand in a hand on way, the Nature of Anicca and the meaning of the Vessel.
As this body of ours changes through the passing of the seasons,
from environmental changes and acts of humankind, we realize that we are not permanent. We also know that our thoughts and attitudes have change repeatedly, in response to this ever changing world. Their is no human body that is unchangeable, no human institution that is permanent. Anatta is the term that points to the mind that perceives things as self, such as personality and characteristics in the world. Zen Teacher Sekito states in his work called Identity of Relative and Absolute or Sandoki in Japanese, which we are only perceived by our senses and that like a mirror, for what we do perceive, there is the whole of what we don't perceive.
"It is as if one looks into a jeweled mirror, seeing both shadow and substance. You are not it, it is all of you. A baby of this world such as this, possesses five sense organs, yet goes not and neither comes, neither arises nor yet stays, has words and yet no words." - Sekito, Sando-ki; J. Kennet.
The baby of this world, has not yet formed attachment to personality or characteristics, does not see or perceive things yet to be separate from themselves. Sekito is saying that when we look at what we call our personality or characteristics we can see the substance reflected in the jeweled mirror, which is to say in the world around us. Every thing that we perceive is the reflection in the jeweled mirror; Our family, or work place, even our government is reflected back to us to perceive. When one looks into a mirror, such as one dos just before going out to make slight adjustments to ones appearance, the jeweled mirror reflects our own self as we have projected into the arising causation of the world. For example if one feels anger toward something or some idea, looking into the jeweled mirror shows the attachment we have made to the arising of the object of our perception. When we see the substance of our attachment, such as the concepts and meanings the object embraces and we also see the shadow. This dark shadow is the impermanence of the attachment and the object, and the understanding that the object has no-self of its own origin other that what we project into it. Even our friends and family is again the jeweled mirror that reflects our attachments, good or bad, to the characteristics and personalities that are perceived by the discriminating mind.
Suffering or un-satisfaction called Dukkha, arose out of Anicca and Anatta. From this arises the First Noble Truth, that Suffering exist. Dukkha is pointing to the self attached to personality and characteristics as perceived in the world and wanting them to be conditional, which is to say pleasing to our sense of self, order and peace. This conditional perception causes friction or tension that is felt, sometimes as frustration, anger, hopelessness or even abandonment. This can lead to depression or even apathy in ones life, yet if one chooses to turn the mind inwards to look at the roots of the self, one embarks on the grandest adventure of all times. To grab hold of our suffering we use it like a paddle or sail, we can navigate the seas of causation and investigate the meaning of Anicca, Anatta and Dukkha.
From the Lankavartara Sutra: Mahamati asked, what relation ego-personality bears to the mind system?
The Buddha said: To explain it, it is first necessary to speak of the self-nature of the five grasping aggregates that make up personality, although as I have already shown they are empty, unborn and with out self-nature. These five aggregates are: form, sensation, perception, discrimination, and consciousness. Of these, form belongs to the what is made of the so-called primary elements. The four remaining aggregates are without form and ought not to be reckoned as four, because they merge imperceptibly into one another. They are like space which cannot be numbered; it is only due to imagination that they are discriminated and likened to space. Because things are endowed with appearances of being, characteristic-marks, perceivableness, abode, work, one can say that they are born of effect-producing causes, but this can not be said of these four intangible aggregates for they are without form and marks. These four mental aggregates that make up personality are beyond calculability, they are not to be predicted as existing nor as not existing, but together they constitute what is known as mortal-mind. They are even more maya-like and dream like than are things, nevertheless, as discriminating mortal-mind they obstruct the self-realization of Noble Wisdom. But it is only by the ignorant that they are enumerated and thought of as the ego-personality; the wise do not do so. This discrimination of the five aggregates that make up personality and that serve as the basis for(creating) an ego-soul and ground for its desires and self-interest must be given up, and in its place the truth of imagelessness and solitude should be established. _Lankavartara Sutra, Buddhist Bible, Dwight Goddard, pg 305.
It is pointed out quite clear that in ignorance of our true nature,
our personality sees itself as separate and sets itself up as king of the five aggregates. In the Story of Enlightenment of the Sakyamuni Buddha, Mara the king of the material and nonmaterial world, launched his armies, daughters and beast at the coming of the Dharma. Yet, all of his efforts crumbled and Mara retreated to the east, which is to say to awaking. Mara, the King of the world, is a name that Buddhist use to describe the mind that hold the world in separateness, and sees existence only in the rising and falling of material and nonmaterial objects. Buddhist training first brings up the relationship that the student has with Mara the world king. At this discovery, the teachings of Buddha help to transform Mara with the bringing in of the Dharma.
The Universe is the shedding of a single tear, Holding it back, Is like the fish thinking he can swallow the sea. _Mark Vetanen
The Five Skandhas_
To investigate the complete nature of dualistic thought we must bring to notice all the ways that we take in this universe. We call them the five skandhas, or the gates of in-flowing information. Form, Sensation, Thought, activity and consciousness are what Buddhist refer to the five Skandhas. A skandha is a term that we give to the way the mind perceives this world though the five senses.
Form - Fundamentally, we see and use things in its forms. A cup of water cannot be retained without some form to contain it in, or the rivers would not be without some forms to channel the river into being. Without this form of a body, where would you be? We may perceive form to be square, round, soft, hard, triangular. We also perceive form to be useful or useless, perhaps we perceive form to be meaning, or just profound. The words we speak, the gestures we use to suggest, the cultivating or the seeing illusion of, is all the nature of form.
Sensation - This is often underrated as Feeling, but it is more of the engagement into the arising form. Feelings of unbridled admiration and respect may by some fall into the form of love. Wile, feelings of rejection and disgust, may fall into the forms of hate, or even into the arising of the thought of Evil. When the senses perceive a form, the holding of numerous prior ideas and purposes arouses a sensation or opinion that is quickly attached to the newly perceived form.
Thought - The arising of form and sensation together arises with its third brother thought. Though our senses, thought picks our forms, or to say produces an opinion. These opinions are influenced by sensations, thus we apply label to things to give name to our opinions and discriminations. For example we may label things as good, bad, useful or useless all regarding our own view of purpose and meaning about ourselves.
Form, sensation and thought all arise together when information flows though the five sense organs.
Activity - Arising together with Consciences, activity is the noticing the discrimination of things, the sensations we form about each thing and the thoughts that label too. This we call activity.
Consciousness - is the noticing of activity. Consciousness can discriminate between present activity and the past activity. Consciousness notices the differences in activities that arise from moment to moment.
The Five skandhas together are the foundations to what we call "Myself."
Returning to our task of building a ship, we also find that we must study the sea that we wish to sail upon. Any experienced sailor will tell someone new, to watch how the sea moves and the way the currents, the swells and the seas interact with each other. Just as the sailor gives names to the different parts of the water that moves in what we call the ocean, the Buddhist also gives names to the different ways that the universe is perceived to move. The old sea captain will take new sailors out upon the vast oceans and teach them the various natures of the ocean. Buddhism uses meditation or called Tantra in much the same way. Liken to the young sailor upon the ocean watching and noticing the different seas, swells and currents, we to must know the nature of the five skandhas, or we will find our ship quickly dashed upon the jagged rocks of the ocean.
The Four Noble Truths
Now that we are well under way of building our ship, we also must build the mast. This particular vessel has four mast that reaches high into the sky, each being one of the Four Noble Truths.
Existence is Marked by Suffering.
This proclamation is true of all sentient beings who engage and maintain dualistic thought. When we understand the nature of existence(skandhas), and suffering(dukkha), we understand how we mark them with discriminating thought.
Suffering is caused by Craving.
Suffering(dukkha) arises together with anatta(no-self) and anicca(impermanence). Once we understand the nature of dukkha, anatta and anicca we start to make way for the third noble truth.
Suffering can be Extinguished.
This is the noticing of our already enlightened pure True Nature as viewed with the discriminating mind. Why set foot upon the Buddha Path? Why build such an ship? Because we know that the Dream of Nirvana(the extinguishing of suffering) speaks of a promise that echoes though out time and space. Already we had a glimpse, we have started to waken to our suffering.
The Means to End Suffering is the Noble Eightfold path.
When we engage in understand dukkha, anicca and anatta, it is called by Buddhist the Noble Eightfold Path. This path is the training that Buddhist teach and pass down from generation to generation. This teaching is like the old sea captain teaching the nature of the sea to the young sailor. Seas and oceans don't keep names, only the self that engages in discrimination hold names and labels. The Buddhists teach names and labels to help the student understand the Three Natures of Being and learn about the self. The path is broken down into eight parts labeled as: Right understanding Right views Right speech Right action Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Right Meditation
The Eightfold path is seen, and often taught as a graduated path to understanding the Four Noble Truths and understanding dukkha, anatta and anicca. Each stated "Path" is only an opportunity for the seeker to experience for themselves the teachings of Buddha. As the Buddhist explores one aspect of this path, all of the other aspects are also given perspective. This is like exploring a mountain. We first learn of the dangers of the mountain and what precautions we may need to take. As we explore the mountain, we learn how to successfully explore the many caves, valleys and overhangs that we come to. Buddhist training often uses analogy and stories to teach the students of the difficult traps, pits and discouragements that ones come to in study of the self.
Buddhist refrain on stating exactly what each part of the Eightfold Path means, because each person will engage the Eightfold path differently. Buddhist training can bring a person to the learning of the names of the Eight Fold path and what each label reefers to, the knowledge of the Four Noble Truths, but in the end the person must enter into the Eightfold path in their own way, by themselves. It's like a door or barrier, once passed though, you understand the nature of the Eightfold path. One Zen commentary says that the Eightfold path is 1/3 part study, 1/3 part faith and 1/3 part guts!! Now their area also lots of dogmatist material that states that the Eightfold path is to act in certain moral ways in a particular manor described by the authors of such an text. We go back to the Sutras and they firmly state that Buddhas don't follow an Eightfold path. So at least we understood that the Eightfold path is not a set of rules or conditions to meet, but rather an door, or set of doors that allows us to open up to the Buddha way in any situation. When we start to understand dukkha, anatta and anicca, the statement, "Right" followed by an condition points directly to any dualistic reference to the universe. This is the opening the door to the Buddhas path and what is termed as "practice" by the old worthies of Buddhism. The first time we enter the door of the Eightfold path, we may resist and fight against the entering. Only until we are ready to just take a chance and enter into it. That is to say, we let the understanding of dukkha, anatta and anicca flow into our everyday problem.
Chapter - 3 Karma, Evil and Rebirth.
"If a tree falls in the forest, and nobody is around to hear it, did the tree fall?"
From the Lankavatara Sutra Buddha teaches that five senses perceive arising causation. As stated by the Buddha causation is cause and effect. In the statement above, if the tree falls, it falls due to causation that arises from many other causation that may be hidden to our human perceptions. We may externally see the tree upon the ground, the broken branches and the crushed plants underneath. Internally, such things as ignorance, desire, purpose flow into the external causation that is at hand, thus the forming of karma.
Cause and effect known as causation is infinite and unending. If you look for the beginning, you will only find that there was a beginning before the beginning. If you look for the end, you again will find that there is an end after the end. If you look at movement of cause and effect you will see that it is surrounded by the infinite collation of cause and effects, and thus perceiving anicca or 'No-self' in cause and effect, which we will call causation.
If one is to look at causation and make discriminations about what is perceived this is called Karma, or the flowing of "self" into the external object. Discrimination of Causation is the flowing of your desires, ignorance and purposes into the perceived object or action. This flowing is the cognitive reflection of Greed, anger(hate) and delusion, known as the Three poisons. The external object may be of physical tangible things, or of intangible things such as thoughts and ideas. The flowing of Karma gives birth to the three worlds of past, present and future. Buddha teaches that this moment is not dependent upon the prior moments or future moments. That is to say that causation viewed with the karma afflicted mind will see past, present and future in respect to the discriminating views of the person.
Upon coming to a tree that fell in the woods, we may project our self into the falling of the tree and come up with all kinds of past histories for the falling of the tree, as well as future possibilities of the tree. Our perception of the falling of the tree is based upon our empirical observation. For example, if we are ignorant to the empirical evidence at hand, we may place that ignorance into the desire realm and perceive a GOD or mystical force that fell the tree. The desire of an external mystical force is projected into the falling of the tree though the opportunity of our ignorance.
Generally the Term Evil is referred as actions afflicted by the tree poisons greed, hade and delusion. In detail, we find that Buddhism refers to evil as the inner workings of Greed, anger and delusion projected upon the Universe, the perceived arising and falling of causation. Evil out-flowing that affect mind, body and speech, arise from the mind that externalize the world, which becomes attached to it and is subjected to its rise and falls. In the gross cases, we can find this in the example of murders who kill because they view their victims as the cause of their suffering. In a subtle example, we may take disagreement with others who hold ideas that we find not pleasing to ourselves. Popular views refer to the term of Evil in a dualistic way that arises from the moral perceptions based upon virtues actions. Karma is not "Evil," we can find good men and women whom give aid to the suffering and comfort to the ill, but are still afflicted by karma. The "Evil nature" that Buddhist refer to is the internal action that views our delusions as the Truth, and set the ego-self as Mara-like king. It is likening to maintaining a dream, a fantasy that is wanting to be pleasing to your desires, ignorance and purpose. In this maintaining the Dreamlike state, we discriminate in the five ways by; maintaining views that cut off others "to kill," that covers over the cries of others "to steal," that engages in the prolific action of planting the seed of evil in others "to desire by procreation," to direct others in the views of the Dream-life "to lie," and to foster the hopes, wishes and desires of that the dream world is whispering to us as Truth "to spread delusion."
Buddhas Eight-fold path teaches us that in each of these evil ways, is door to wisdom that cuts away karmic suffering. The term "Right" or perhaps can also be stated as "turning into" is the method of self-realization. When we "turn into" we are allowing the nature of anicca(impermanence), anatta(no-self) and dukkha(suffering) to permeate our dream-world that we project externally and revel what mental habits we may have formed and the evil ways that have covered over the wisdom that was originally there. Buddhist call this, "Right" or "Turning into" when allowed to naturally flow into our karmicly created dream world, Dharma. Buddhist say, "That those who create no karma, obtain the Dharma." This means that when we realize the nature of Karma and the evil outflows associated with karma, it is transformed into Dharma that transforms our skandhas into Wisdom gates allowing the natural wisdom to flow in. So instead of the Mind objectifying the skandhas, that is called "Small Mind," Mind and skandhas drop away, are "forgotten" as some Zennist state and this is the being of the Bodhisattva.
Buddhist refer to the following of the Eight-fold path as the Bodhisattva path, or the Wisdom-beings path. The Teachings of this path are many and varied. We find that each teaching is likening to a door that fits the audience. For the learned and educated, we find teachings to match, such as written discourses and sutras, and for the ignorant and superstitious, again we find teachings that attract them, such as stories. Yet, it is stated that Bodhisattvas don't follow the Eight fold path. So we understand that the Eight-fold path is likening to a door of becoming. In a matter of speaking, following the eight-fold path is not the Eightfold path, only when we enter the Eight-fold path though its vast and many doors, do we transform into the Bohdisattva, or the Living Eight-fold path.
Is a ship its sails? Is it its hull, mast and deck? Is the ship a shape that is distinguishable from other forms? We can discuss this in great detail, fleshing out every nuance of how the mind may perceive the being of a ship. As we discuss this, we start to understand that the BEING of the ship is only mind. If we view the ship in its various parts, we find that we cannot find the ship in one certain part. This is so with the Bodhisattva path.
In understanding how the mind makes causation into BEING, we understand how our ignorance, desires and purpose flows into Causation (cause and effect) and a transposition occurs, that is to say the Phenomena that appears to our skandhas, takes on the form (objects and creations) and non-forms (thoughts and systems) that our desires, ignorance and purposes are reflected in (this is also known as karma). Desires, Ignorance and purpose that are the active notions of the three poisons, greed, anger and delusion.
The Bodhisattva is only a name that is given to mind that understands BEING. To understand BEING, is to study Being. When we study being we let go of Being or forget it, drop it. As we drop being, we the understand what makes us stand, sits and lie down.
Those that don't understand, see that such people are following a path, but those that understand follow no path.
Buddhas and Bodhisattvas don't teach, give lectures or write sutras. They don't make laws, paths or precepts to follow. If you don't understand BEING, then one may perceive that Buddhas teach, give lectures and write sutras. When one doesn't understand the Nature of Mind, they see Oneness and Otherness that make them sit, stand and lye down. When one does not understand Karma, then one is used by Rules, precepts and laws.
Study of BEING may be called Meditation (J. Zazen). Without this mediation there is no Wisdom. Wisdom may be looked at as the action of understanding Being, Oneness and otherness.
This is a term that Buddhist use to describe a Karma afflicted being whom teaches their evil ways to others, directly or indirectly. That particular being may arise, and go, yet the their evil ways may carry on in others whom they have affected. If we look at our own Karma, we perhaps notice that some of our habitual ways of dealing with "things" have been taught to us by someone else, whom in turn learned from someone else. Some things such as language, knowledge and culture are things that must be taught to each new being are the canals of rebirth. Other things such as racial pride, nationalism and religious fundamentalism are the actualization of rebirth. When a person projects themselves into one of the tenants of rebirth, like racial pride, they allow the evil ways of that tenant to dwell(possession) with in them. Buddhist writings may refer to such beings as demons. Buddhist also state that if evil can be reborn, so can good. Self-realized beings may show people their virtues that they live by that may affect others in setting up of social morals and laws based upon those virtues displayed.
The Bodhisattva by their teachings and actions may affect many sentient beings. In the Tibetan Buddhist teachings, these actions will form around one particular sentient being and they are called reincarnates or emanations, they are the total embodiment of this good at rebirth. Though this notion is popular, Traditional Buddhism state that there is no soul, person or being to begin with, only the perception of a being a soul or person that dwells in the karmic world. Many self-realized beings have effected many sentient beings, but this is the nature of the Tathagatha, or some may call the Cosmic Buddha. Buddhist state that we are inherently enlightened, and when we "Forget" the reasons why we are not enlightened, we in a sense become emanations of the Tathagatha.
So, we can choose to be possessed, to cause rebirth in others of our evils or to transform into the eternal Tathagatha. There are no "other factors" guiding our lives, we are making this decision moment by moment. Our habitual ways perhaps fool us into thinking that there is no choice, but is not that the nature of Evil, to mimic truth? We may have become lazy, dependant on the fantasy world and all of its lofty ideas. We may have fooled ourselves in thinking that we are an person of a deeply afflicted nature. But we make that choice moment by moment, even now we are making that choice.
The Bodhisattva path is the path of choice. If you are unable to make that choice, you will forever be barred from the path!
Chapter - 4 Nirvana
As we have laid out the keel of our ship, built up the frame work, raised the mast and put our ship out to sea, we have noticed that in every step of the way, we had to engage with others in explaining what we are doing and how we are doing it. In this way, we begin to help others also understand the nature of our mission, and perhaps guide them to ponder their own wooden boats, build from Greed, anger and delusion, which they are using to sailing in this sea of causation. When we understand the nature of the vessel that we are building, we see that it does not just reside in the frame work of the ship we built. Only the selfish will try to set sail on that ship called the Bodhisattva, and proclaim it to be the One True ship.
Nirvana is the actualization of the Bodhisattva in this world. Free from Karma, understanding ignorance and with no selfish purpose, the Bodhisattva being walks across the waters of causation to help others who are adrift in their self-built wooden boats, teaching them in ways that they can relate to the nature of their wooden boat. There is not one or many Bodhisattva, those that understand the nature of this world and seek an Personal nirvana are the Arhats. Versed well in Buddhist lore, these are the ones that will set sail in the self-built ships called the "Bodhisattva," to seek a personal nirvana of bliss and peace, upon the seas of causation. The True Bodhisattva by the nature of understanding Anicca, anatta and Dukkha, appearers to make vows that state, "So long as they do not attain Nirvana, I will not attain it myself.", Yet this vow that is perceived by those engaged the dualistic world, is only the actualization of the Bodhisattva. For to attain nirvana is the Arhat, whom selfishly secludes themselves away from the world for personal bliss and peace. The True Bodhisattva, with understanding of impermanence, no-self and suffering, engages in full heatedly in this world, seemingly able to walk across the seas of causation to the ones that cry out in their various ways for help. The timid and the selfish are all served by the Bodhisattvas who are not one, or two or many.
A Bodhisattva does not wait for any personal condition to occur, certain knowledge to be learned or sectarian authorization to be given, in helping others understand the True nature of existence. When one is beginning to understand the nature of themselves and feels the selfish habits pulling at their desires and needs, to turn about and share this understanding with others, is the True Way of Buddha. Even if one is not versed in Buddhist lore or is clumsy with words, this sharing still occurs. Sharing with others open up the opens up the field of opportunity for all beings to hear the Dharma of that is already there before them.
We may begin to study wisdom for our own self, yet if we are unable to bring that wisdom to the people and communities that we live in, we find that we are always one step away from real wisdom. The way of the Arhat, the Saint or the Master is to live a selfish life that only creates a delusional world of doctrines, ritual and dogma.
HERE IS THE OUTLINE OF THE NEXT FOUR CHAPTERS.
Chapter 5 - Practices of the Eightfold path
This chapter will discuss the Buddhist teaching of Tantra, Meditation and precept training. Traditional Zen Buddhism bases it current forms on these fundamental training methods
Chapter 6 - Buddhist Religion
This chapter will discuss the religious views of Buddhism, in referring to training and helping others achieve the way.
Chapter 7 - Questions and Answers
Questions about the first three chapters that readers have asked to the author.
- The questions and answers are developed from feedback by readers of
this text. If you have a question, comment or response send them to: Mvetanen@aol.com, Subject Foundations of wisdom. Or send by postal mail to Mark Vetanen 6107 SW Murrey Bv, #289 Beaverton Oregon, 97008. This is an postal box, so please don't look for me there.*
Chapter - 8 Resources and references of Buddhist Training
This chapter will outline study materials to use in the study of
Buddhism, how to study and what places offer study programs.
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